Security and Compliance

SYS.1.01 - Audit Logging

Control Statement

IllumiDesk logs critical information system activity.


Logging is the foundation for a variety of other security controls including monitoring, incident response, and configuration management. Without comprehensive and reliable logs, large parts of our security compliance program wouldn't be possible. This control is left vague by design. As we develop our system maps and inventories this control will likely become a bit more targeted. To start we really want all IllumiDesk teams to enable system-level logging on all production systems.

An auditor will look to validate in-scope systems are generating logs, those logs are collected, retained the required amount of time and utilized to monitor for performance, health, and anomalies. To validate the control is working properly, the auditor should require additional pieces of information to demonstrate audit logging is functioning properly. Those information items include:

  • Review of the audit and accountability policy and procedures

  • Confirmation that audit events are reviewed and updated on a recurring basis

  • Review what should be collected for auditing and cross-reference against what is collected

  • Determine what defines a production system to validate the correct systems are being audited

  • Confirm log validation processes are working as intended

  • Master asset listing to confirm correct systems are being audited

  • Log collection process(es)


This control applies to all systems within our production environment. The production environment includes all endpoints and cloud assets used in hosting and its subdomains. This may include third-party systems that support the business of


Control Owner:

  • Infrastructure

Process Owners:

  • Security Compliance

  • Infrastructure

  • Security Operations


Server configuration standards should have logging information enabled for each type of system. These logs should be retained for one year with 90 days of data immediately available for analysis or in accordance with Record Retention Policy, whichever is longer.

Audit Logging Matrix

Audit Logging Matrix is a modified version of NIST 800-92 - Guide to Computer Security Log Management. The table below is an example of how the audit logging matrix should be presented to users.




Log Example(s)

General Information


When the event occurred

2017-07-04*13:23:55 2019-09-30T19:15:26.309Z Sep 30, 2019 @ 15:15:26.309

Event, Status, and/or error codes

The action taken

Sep 11 09:46:33 sys1 crontab[20601]: (root) BEGIN EDIT (root) Sep 11 09:46:39 sys1 crontab[20601]: (root) REPLACE (root) Sep 11 09:46:39 sys1 crontab[20601]: (root) END EDIT (root) storage.objects.delete v1.compute.instances.delete

Service/cmd/app name

What tool the actor used

service sshd start

User or system acct associated with an event (username, uuid, global UID, API token name, 3rd party)


"user_id":3003042 "username":"jsmith-admin" "TdGZg20BL6pl1duCU2g7"


What access the actor has


Device used (e.g. source and destination IPs, terminal session ID, web browser, device ID, etc.)

Where the event is originating from or terminates

source IP - destination IP - device ID - 89ABxDEF-01234567-89ABxDEF

OS Events

Start-up and shut-down of the system

Unintended or modified system activity

Jun 1 22:20:05 secserv kernel: Kernel logging (proc) stopped. Jun 1 22:20:05 secserv kernel: Kernel log daemon terminating. Jun 1 22:20:06 secserv exiting on signal 15 Nov 27 08:05:57 galileo kernel: Kernel logging (proc) stopped. Nov 27 08:05:57 galileo kernel: Kernel log daemon terminating. Nov 27 08:05:57 galileo exiting on signal 15

Start-up and shut-down of a service

Unintended or modified service activity

Jan 26 12:22:41 combo xinetd[2013]: bind failed (Address already in use (errno = 98)). service = telnet Jan 26 12:22:41 combo xinetd[2013]: Service telnet failed to start and is deactivated. Jan 26 12:22:42 combo spamassassin: spamd startup succeeded Jan 26 12:22:43 combo privoxy: privoxy startup succeeded Jan 26 12:55:20 combo sendmail: sm-client shutdown succeeded

Network connection changes or failures

Unintended or modified network activity

Jan 26 12:22:03 combo network: Setting network parameters: succeeded

Changes to, or attempts to change, system security settings and controls

Security settings and controls are modified very rarely


Audit Records

Log-on attempts (successful or unsuccessful)

Identify brute force, password spraying

May 21 11:21:03 sshd[11179]: `Accepted password` for tanuki from port 58244 ssh2 Dec 12 21:32:40 sshd[43456]: `Failed password` for root from port37632 ssh2 Jan 22 05:51:12 combo sshd[24935]: Failed password for illegal user miha from ::ffff: port 55263 ss

The function(s) performed after logging on (e.g., reading or updating a critical file, software installation)

Track all actions taken by actor

Jan 26 12:22:13 combo kernel: audit(1138278089.855:0): avc: denied { read write } for pid=1 exe=/sbin/init name=initctl dev=hda2 ino=1031635 scontext=system_u:system_r:kernel_t tcontext=system_u:object_r:file_t tclass=fifo_file

File changes( e.g., name, creation and deletion, integrity)

Unintended or modified file activity

Sat Feb 3 05:32:20 CST 2007 0 /etc/hosts1308742 fd:00 0100644 0 0 00:00 system_u:object_r:etc_t:s0

Data export

Track data exportation against defined baselines

Mon Jun 19 04:44:43 2017 1 20 /CSV/test1.csv a _ o r testuser ftp 0 * c Mon Jun 19 04:51:33 2017 1 432 /CSV/test4.csv a _ o r testuser ftp 0 * c Mon Jun 19 04:57:15 2017 1 110 /CSV/test14.csv a _ o r testuser ftp 0 * c Mon Jun 19 04:57:19 2017 1 2505 /CSV/master.csv a _ o r testuser ftp 0 * c

Account changes (e.g., account creation and deletion, account privilege assignment)

Identify privilege escalation or suspicious accounts

sudo: mike : TTY=pts/2 ; PWD=/home/mike ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/usr/sbin/adduser jim sudo: pam_unix(sudo:session): session opened for user root by mike(uid=1000) groupadd[1731]: group added to /etc/group: name=jim, GID=1001 groupadd[1731]: group added to /etc/gshadow: name=jim groupadd[1731]: new group: name=jim, GID=1001 useradd[1735]: new user: name=jim, UID=1001, GID=1001, home=/home/jim, shell=/bin/bash passwd[1742]: pam_unix(passwd:chauthtok): password changed for jim passwd[1742]: gkr-pam: couldn't update the login keyring password: no old password was entered chfn[1743]: changed user 'jim' information sudo: pam_unix(sudo:session): session closed for user root

Successful/failed use of privileged accounts

Unintended privileged account activity

Jan 30 11:25:57 combo sshd(pam_unix)[3533]: authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=NODEVssh ruser= user=root Jan 23 05:28:18 combo sshd[28534]: Failed password for root from ::ffff: port 57203 ssh2

Database Operations

Direct data changes

Integrity of financial data used in reporting


ELT job failures

Completeness and accuracy of data being used in financial reporting and operational decision-making

_Dependent on key financial applications_

Application account information

Successful and failed application authentication attempts

Identify unintended activity

Git-99-sb-gprd sshd 3087 error: Received disconnect from port 39772:3: com.jcraft.jsch.JSchException: Auth fail [preauth] system.auth gprd git-99-sb-gprd git-99-sb-gprd.c.IllumiDesk-production.internal 2019/10/04 18:06:23 [error] 29881#0: *319208 connect() to unix:/var/opt/IllumiDesk/IllumiDesk-workhorse/socket failed (111: Connection refused) while connecting to upstream, client:, server:, request: "POST /api/v4/jobs/request HTTP/1.1", upstream: "hxxp://unix:/var/opt/IllumiDesk/IllumiDesk workhorse/socket:/api/v4/jobs/request", host: ""

Application account changes (e.g., account creation and deletion, account privilege assignment)

Identify privilege escalation or suspicious accounts

October 06, 2014 11:56: User "Administrator" ([email protected]) was created October 06, 2014 11:56: Documentcloud created a new project "Documentcloud / Underscore" October 06, 2014 11:56: IllumiDesk Org created a new project "IllumiDesk Org / IllumiDesk Ce" October 07, 2014 11:25: User "Claudie Santie" ([email protected]) was removed October 07, 2014 11:25: Project "project133" was removed

Use of application privileges

Unintended privileged account activity


Application Operations

Application startup and shutdown

Unintended or modified application activity


Application failures

Identify brute force, password spraying


Major application configuration changes

Unintended or modified application configuration activity


Application transactions: – e-mail servers recording the sender, recipients, subject name, and attachment names for each e-mail – Web servers recording each URL requested and the type of response provided by the server – business applications recording which financial records were accessed by each user

Capture relevant application transaction data to create baselines for identifying unintended actions


Additional control information and project tracking

Non-public information relating to this security control as well as links to the work associated with various phases of project work can be found in the Audit Logging control issue.

Framework Mapping

  • SOC2 CC

    • CC7.2